A view of some unfashionable landfilling.

Unfashionable Talk About Landfills

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Get ready for unfashionable talk about landfills!

Let's talk rubbish—literally. You might not think about landfills much unless the smell drifts your way on a windy day or you're tossing out the garbage. But these dumping grounds are more than just piles of junk; they're a snapshot of our consumer habits and a challenge we need to tackle.

Landfill sites could never themselves be said to be anything but damaging. But did you know innovative minds in places like the UK are turning what is happening on top of and beside old dumps into something useful? Yep, that's right.

Now, what if I told you our mountains of waste are providing the land for cleaner energy facilities (MRFS and ERFs), new parks, or less climate change? This blog will dig into why those seemingly unfashionable landfills deserve our attention and how they play a big part in our push for a greener planet.

And by the end of this read, you might see these trash heaps as fields of opportunity! Ready to find out how? Keep reading – it gets better!

Key Takeaways for Unfashionable Talk About Landfills

  • Landfills aren't just dumps; they're turning into places for clean energy and parks.
  • In 2013, for the first time, the UK recycled more than it sent to landfills, and recycling rates are continuing to rise slowly.
  • Old landfills are becoming “Solar Landfills” with solar panels for power.
  • New technologies capture gas from trash to make energy and help fight climate change.
  • The UK's first plan was called “Waste Not Want Not“, at the start of the century. It set out a policy to use things again instead of trashing them. It is not only working but has become a whole new “circular economy!

Table of Contents

The Waste Management Revolution

A modern recycling plant with high-tech waste sorting equipment, emphasizing efficiency and innovation.
Waste separation machinery used to sort our waste so that it can be recycled.

Developed nations, including the UK, are focusing on new technological developments for waste management. This includes a strong emphasis on waste minimization, reuse, and recycling to meet European targets which led us to write this unfashionable talk about landfills.

Developed nations focus on new technological developments for waste management

Rich countries are always looking for better ways to handle trash. They use new machines and smart systems to sort, recycle, and get rid of waste without harming the planet. This means less stuff ends up being buried in the ground.

They also have big places where they can do cool things with waste. They are called MRFs (Materials Recycling Facilities) and ERFs (Energy Recycling Facilities – municipal waste incinerators to you and me!).

These places can turn old food into power or make compost to help plants grow (when they include an MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment) plant. By using these new tech ideas, these nations aim to keep our planet clean and safe for everyone.

UK in step with European targets for waste minimization, re-use, and recycling

The UK waste management industry is working hard to cut down on waste and make more use of things again. They want to recycle a lot, just like other places in Europe. This means they ask the public to try not to throw away as much stuff.

Instead, the goal is for items that once ended up in trash heaps to find new life. In 2003, the UK government started with its “Waste Not Want Not” plan and has been pushing these ideas ever since.

Now, they are doing better at recycling than throwing away. Back in 2013, it was the first time they recycled more than what went into landfills! By keeping up with this trend, the UK hopes to keep things circling back into use instead of piling up where they can hurt our planet.

A view of some unfashionable landfilling. It is the result of environmental damage like this that we called this article "Unfashionable Talk About Landfills".

A landfill site with large-scale waste disposal, heavy machinery, mountains of garbage, and environmental impact. Is it any wonder it is unfashionable to talk about landfills!

Implementation of new waste technologies for sustainable waste processing

Developed nations are not just cutting down on waste; they're changing how they handle it. New waste technologies are now turning trash into treasure. These methods include breaking down solid waste without hurting (polluting) the land or water.

Machines and processes that were once dreams are now real, making less garbage end up in places like sanitary landfills.

Cities and companies across the UK use these smart systems to turn old throw-aways into new stuff. They make compost from food scraps and capture gas from rotting trash to make energy.

Solar panels even sit atop many closed dumps, soaking up sun power instead of taking up more space with waste. This is how countries aim for Zero Waste and a Circular Economy, where everything gets reused or remade.

Many MRFs and ERFs and even industrial estates are built next to landfills to make money from the recycled goods and materials.

Plans for Zero Waste and the Circular Economy

The UK government has (in 2018) laid out ambitious plans to move towards a zero-waste economy and embrace the principles of the circular economy. By 2030, it aims to significantly reduce waste generation and maximize resource efficiency still further through reuse, recycling, and sustainable waste management technologies.

These efforts align with European targets for waste minimization and reflect a global shift towards more sustainable practices in waste management. Moreover, these initiatives signify a pivotal step towards reducing environmental impact, rehabilitating nature, and promoting a more sustainable future for generations to come.

In pursuit of these goals, the UK government has long since implemented Duty of Care regulations for waste haulers and skip-hire service companies to ensure responsible handling of waste. Additionally, the focus on new technological developments for large-scale waste facilities underscores the commitment to processing waste sustainably while minimizing its environmental footprint.

Landfilling – The unfashionable talk about landfills

The UK government has made significant progress in waste management strategy for landfills, from the Waste Not Want Not campaign in 2003. In the US as well there have been improvements which have included the Waste Strategy for Landfill in 2023.

To learn more about the changing landscape of landfilling and its impact on the environment, keep reading!

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How sanitary landfilling has changed in the last 25 years

Sanitary landfilling has experienced minimal change in the 25 years since the EU Landfill Directive was implemented at the turn of the century.

Despite advancements in waste management, traditional landfilling methods have largely persisted with most now at least lining their landfills with low-permeability membranes to hold back the inevitable day when they leak toxic leachate.

However, the fundamental process of landfilling remains relatively unchanged.

In recent years, there has been a shift towards retrofitting landfill gas extraction and utilizing landfill gas after COP26 when many nations of the world pledged to slow down climate change by reducing landfill methane emissions.

Additionally, old landfill sites are being repurposed to create “Solar Landfills,” marking a notable innovation in the otherwise conventional practice of sanitary landfilling.

Discussions on waste management strategy for landfills

UK waste and resources strategy concept diagram.
UK waste and resources strategy concept diagram published when Michael Gove was the Environment Minister.

The discussions on waste management strategies for landfills are crucial as they involve finding sustainable ways to handle the ever-increasing amount of waste. Initiatives such as “Waste Not Want Not” in 2003 and the UK government's document “Our Waste, Our Resources: A Strategy for England” published in December 2023 demonstrate the nation's ongoing commitment to reducing landfill use and improving waste management practices.

In the strategy document, the UK government has pledged to:

  • Improve recycling rates by ensuring a consistent set of dry recyclable materials is collected from all households and businesses
  • Reduce future greenhouse gas emissions from England's landfills by ensuring that every householder and appropriate business has a weekly separate food waste collection, subject to consultation
  • Improve urban recycling rates, working with business and local authorities
  • Improve working arrangements between and better support the performance of local authorities
  •  Drive greater efficiency of Energy from Waste (EfW) plants
  • Address barriers to the use of recycled materials
  • Encourage waste producers and managers to implement the waste hierarchy in respect of
    hazardous waste.

“Simpler recycling collections and tougher regulation”: 2023 UK Government Strategy

In addition to the above, the UK government also set out plans in October 2023 to improve England's waste management system.

The UK government's Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs has pledged “simplified recycling collections” and stronger control. Reforms to household and business bin collections, as well as a crackdown on unscrupulous waste haulers.

The government said they will introduce planned reforms to household and business bin collection, as well as a crackdown on unscrupulous waste haulers, which will increase recycling rates and preserve the environment.

The goal is to give a new, simpler common-sense approach to recycling so that people across England can recycle the same materials at home, work, or school, eliminating misunderstanding about what can and cannot be recycled in different parts of the nation.

By 2026, most households in England will receive weekly food waste pickups.

“We want to make it easier for people to do the right thing, maximise use, minimise waste and drive up recycling rates.

We have seen household recycling rates in England increase from 11% in the 2000 to 2001 financial year to 42% in 2021 to 2022. However, in recent years household recycling rates have ‘plateaued’ at around 42% to 44%. To address this, we will repeal EU-derived waste collection requirements and introduce improved and simplified requirements through our Environment Act 2021.

Across England, people will be able to recycle the same materials, no longer needing to check what their council will accept for recycling.”

from the UK government's Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs in response to consultatons.

Efforts like these align with the global push towards zero waste and circular economy models, emphasizing the need to minimize, reuse, and recycle waste at all levels of society.

Furthermore, technological advancements have led to innovations like retrofitting landfill gas extraction systems post-COP26 and exploring carbon capture from biogas CO2. With more emphasis on reducing carbon emissions from landfills and embracing cleaner energy sources such as solar landfills, there is an evident shift towards more sustainable landfill management practices that will play a vital role in shaping our environmental future.

UK government's plans for “Waste Not Want Not” in 2003

In 2003, the UK government introduced the “Waste Not Want Not” initiative to tackle landfill waste. The main goal was to increase recycling and decrease the amount of waste being sent to landfills.

This initiative aimed at sustainable waste management by encouraging people to reduce, reuse, and recycle their waste, aligning with global efforts towards a more environmentally friendly approach.

UK Government Waste Strategy for Landfill in 2023

The UK government's “Waste Not Want Not” strategy for landfills in 2023 emphasizes reducing and diverting waste from landfills. The focus is on promoting recycling, reuse, and sustainable waste processing to minimize the amount of waste sent to landfills.

The government aims to further decrease carbon emissions from landfills and explore innovative technologies like solar landfills to achieve a more environmentally friendly approach to waste management.

As part of its commitment to sustainability, the UK government's Waste Strategy for Landfill in 2023 emphasizes minimizing waste through recycling and sustainable processing methods.

This forward-thinking approach reflects the global shift towards environmental responsibility and paves the way for a greener future in waste management practices.

Environmental Impact

More waste was recycled than sent to landfills in 2013 for the first time, and since that date (except for some slide-back recently in England) a positive trend has been maintained. Recent developments are also focusing on reducing carbon emissions from landfills and exploring new technologies like solar landfills to create more sustainable waste management practices.

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More waste was recycled than sent to landfill in 2013 for the first time

In 2013, a historic turning point was reached as more waste was recycled than sent to landfills for the first time. This shift signifies a significant move towards sustainable waste management practices and reflects positively on environmental sustainability efforts.

The UK government's focus on waste minimization, reuse, and recycling played a crucial role in achieving this milestone, highlighting the effectiveness of such initiatives.

This shift also underscores the growing emphasis on implementing new waste technologies to process waste sustainably. With this change, there is an encouraging trend towards reducing the environmental impact of traditional landfilling practices while promoting recycling and resource conservation.

Recent trends for new landfill site developments

More waste was recycled than sent to landfill in 2013 for the first time ever. This shift has led to recent trends in developing new landfill sites with a focus on sustainability and environmental impact.

Landfill sites are now being designed to reduce carbon emissions, with some old landfill sites being repurposed as “Solar Landfills” where solar energy is harnessed. Additionally, there is a global rush to retrofit landfill gas extraction systems and utilize the extracted gas after COP26.

These developments align with the duty of care regulations for skip-hire service companies in the UK, ensuring better control over waste disposal.

Reducing carbon emissions from landfill and carbon credit trading

Landfills contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, impacting the environment. The UK has made progress in reducing carbon emissions from landfills with more waste being recycled than sent to landfills in 2013, a significant milestone.

Additionally, initiatives like carbon credit trading have been key in incentivizing companies and nations to reduce their carbon footprint.

Innovative technologies such as retrofitting landfill gas extraction and utilizing landfill gas have also played a vital role in curbing emissions. Furthermore, efforts to capture carbon from biogas and repurposing old landfill sites into “Solar Landfills” are steps toward sustainable waste management.

These actions not only reduce environmental impact but also pave the way for a more eco-friendly future.

Aerial view of a sprawling landfill with mountains of waste, a polluted river, and a desolate atmosphere. No wonder there is unfashionable talk about landfills.

Innovations in Waste Management

Landfills are being retrofitted to extract and utilize landfill gas, with old sites going solar to create “Solar Landfills”, while carbon capture from biogas CO2 is also becoming a focus.

To learn more about these exciting developments in waste management, keep reading!

The Global Rush to Retrofit Landfill Gas Extraction and Utiliize Landfill Gas after COP26

Landfills around the world are seeing a surge in efforts to retrofit gas extraction systems and harness landfill gas for energy use following COP26. This global push aims to curb greenhouse gas emissions from landfills by capturing methane and other gases released during waste decomposition.

As part of this initiative, old landfill sites are being repurposed for solar energy generation, transforming them into “Solar Landfills.” These sustainable practices align with the goals set at COP26 to reduce carbon emissions and promote renewable energy sources.

Furthermore, there is a growing focus on carbon capture from biogas CO2 as part of these retrofitting efforts. By utilizing innovative technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), landfill operators can mitigate the environmental impact of these facilities while contributing to cleaner energy production.

Carbon capture from Biogas CO2

Biogas is produced when organic matter decomposes in an environment without oxygen. This biogas contains carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas. However, innovative technologies now allow for the capture of CO2 from biogas, reducing its environmental impact.

This captured CO2 can be utilized or stored, aiding in the reduction of overall greenhouse gas emissions.

After advancements in carbon capture from biogas CO2, many are now looking into utilizing this captured CO2 to create sustainable products and reduce emissions further.

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Solar Landfills: Old landfill sites going solar to create “Solar Landfills”

After focusing on capturing CO2 from biogas, old landfill sites are now being transformed into “Solar Landfills” by integrating solar panels. This innovation repurposes historically unusable land for producing renewable energy and further contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The initiative also aligns with the global goal of transitioning towards sustainable energy sources, marking a significant step in mitigating environmental impact.

These Solar Landfills hold immense potential in not only reclaiming and repurposing underutilized spaces but also in promoting clean energy generation, emphasizing the importance of integrating eco-friendly solutions within traditional waste management practices.


In conclusion, waste management is evolving with new technologies for sustainable processing. The UK aligns with European targets for waste minimization and recycling. How can we apply these practical strategies in our daily lives? Consider the impact of these approaches on environmental sustainability.

Let's continue to take action to reduce landfilling and strive for a more efficient waste management system! Explore additional resources to further your understanding of this crucial topic today.

Waste Technologies Revolution
This was the first logo for the original version of this website, back in 2000.

In developed nations, it seems unfashionable to talk about and write about landfills. The world has moved on and wants to talk about all those new technological developments that can turn waste into chic recycled goods, energy to power our cars, fertilizers to grow food, and more.

With the UK in step with European targets for the adoption of waste minimization, reuse, and recycling and implementing “new” waste technologies to process waste sustainably in huge waste facilities, this can be seen as much more interesting.

Sanitary landfilling, in contrast, has changed little in the last 25 years or more, with no significant new legislation since the EU Landfill Directive at the turn of the century. No wonder that it has become a deeply unfashionable subject.

Few people are writing about the waste management of landfills, yet so many landfills remain in operation. Also, we should not forget that the ever-increasing stock of closed landfills continues to grow and requires expert management.

Therefore, “The Landfill Site Web Site” won't let outmoded subjects stop it from continuing to provide information on all facets of landfilling, trash, and garbage.

This website started in 2000 when the UK set out its plans to “Waste Not, Want Not.” The UK government began implementation in 2003, and massive investment in waste processing facilities has now changed the nature of waste management in the UK.

So much so that back in 2013, for the first time, more waste was recycled than was sent to landfills, and recycling rates have been rising ever since.

How long will it take to reduce landfill to becoming history?

We don't know, but come back here again! The IPPTS Landfill Site Website will be covering developments as they unfold – right here!

Unfashionable Talk About Landfills FAQs

1. What is a landfill?

A landfill is a waste disposal site where trash like household garbage, yard waste, and sometimes industrial wastes are buried under layers of soil.

2. Can landfills harm the ground we get our drinking water from?

Yes, if not managed well, stuff dumped in landfills can leak and cause groundwater contamination which may affect the fresh-water we need.

3. Do landfills only have regular trash or other kinds of waste too?

Landfills can contain all sorts of waste including toxic waste, electronics for recycling, refrigerators without freon gas, compost piles from food scraps and more.

4. Are there ways to cut down on what goes into a landfill?

Absolutely! Waste reduction methods like recycling items such as paper and plastics, reusing things instead of throwing them away, and making compost can lessen the amount sent to landfills.

5. Why do people worry about landfills creating greenhouse gases?

When organic materials like food scraps break down in a landfill without air they make methane gas which adds to greenhouse gases that heat up our planet.

6. Is burning trash better than putting it in a landfill?

Burning trash can also be bad because it might release harmful chemicals into the air unless it's done safely with proper controls to protect public health.

[Last updated 2 July 2014.]

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